OK: Found an XML parser.
OK: Support for GZIP encoding.
OK: Support for character munging.

Notice: Undefined property: MagpieRSS::$etag in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_fetch.inc on line 156

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_parse.inc on line 153

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_parse.inc on line 153

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_parse.inc on line 153

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_parse.inc on line 153

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_parse.inc on line 153

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Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_parse.inc on line 153

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/users/1/lolipop.jp-dp21312936/web/feed2js/magpie/rss_parse.inc on line 153

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Example Output

Channel: newsweather-org

RSS URL:

Parsed Results (var_dump'ed)

object(MagpieRSS)#4 (22) {
  ["parser"]=>
  resource(10) of type (Unknown)
  ["current_item"]=>
  array(0) {
  }
  ["items"]=>
  array(10) {
    [0]=>
    array(11) {
      ["title"]=>
      string(91) "To know where the birds are going, researchers turn to citizen science and machine learning"
      ["link"]=>
      string(122) "http://newsweather.org/science/to-know-where-the-birds-are-going-researchers-turn-to-citizen-science-and-machine-learning/"
      ["dc"]=>
      array(1) {
        ["creator"]=>
        string(12) "Laura Surber"
      }
      ["pubdate"]=>
      string(31) "Mon, 06 Feb 2023 16:40:24 +0000"
      ["category"]=>
      string(56) "sciencebirdsCitizenlearningMachineresearchersScienceturn"
      ["guid"]=>
      string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47681"
      ["description"]=>
      string(777) "Journal Reference: Miguel Fuentes, Benjamin M. Van Doren, Daniel Fink, Daniel Sheldon. BirdFlow Learning seasonal bird movements from eBird data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.14052 “Humans have been trying to figure out bird migration for a really long time,” says Dan Sheldon, professor of information and computer sciences at UMass Amherst, the paper’s ... Read more"
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Journal Reference:

  1. Miguel Fuentes, Benjamin M. Van Doren, Daniel Fink, Daniel Sheldon. BirdFlow Learning seasonal bird movements from eBird data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.14052

“Humans have been trying to figure out bird migration for a really long time,” says Dan Sheldon, professor of information and computer sciences at UMass Amherst, the paper’s senior author and a passionate amateur birder. “But,” adds Miguel Fuentes, the paper’s lead author and graduate student in computer science at UMass Amherst, “it’s incredibly difficult to get precise, real-time information on which birds are where, let alone where, exactly, they are going.”

There have been many efforts, both previous and ongoing, to tag and track individual birds, which have yielded invaluable insights. But it’s difficult to physically tag birds in large enough numbers — not to mention the expense of such an undertaking — to form a complete enough picture to predict bird movements. “It’s really hard to understand how an entire species moves across the continent with tracking approaches,” says Sheldon, “because they tell you the routes that some birds caught in specific locations followed, but not how birds in completely different locations might move.”

In recent years, there’s been an explosion in the number of citizen scientists who monitor and report sightings of migratory birds. Birders around the world contribute more than 200 million annual bird sightings through eBird, a project managed by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and international partners. It’s one of the largest biodiversity-related science projects in existence and has hundreds of thousands of users, facilitating state-of-the-art species distribution modeling through the Lab’s eBird Status & Trends project. “eBird data is amazing because it shows where birds of a given species are every week across their entire range,” says Sheldon, “but it doesn’t track individuals, so we need to infer what routes individual birds follow to best explain the species-level patterns.”

BirdFlow draws on eBird’s Status & Trends database and its estimates of relative bird abundance and then runs that information through a probabilistic machine-learning model. This model is tuned with real-time GPS and satellite tracking data so that it can “learn” to predict where individual birds will move next as they migrate.

The researchers tested BirdFlow on 11 species of North American birds — including the American Woodcock, Wood Thrush and Swainson’s Hawk — and found that not only did BirdFlow outperform other models for tracking bird migration, it can accurately predict migration flows without the real-time GPS and satellite tracking data, which makes BirdFlow a valuable tool for tracking species that may literally fly under the radar.

“Birds today are experiencing rapid environmental change, and many species are declining,” says Benjamin Van Doren, a postdoctoral fellow at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and a co-author of the study. “Using BirdFlow, we can unite different data sources and paint a more complete picture of bird movements,” Van Doren adds, “with exciting applications for guiding conservation action.”

We want to thank the author of this write-up for this awesome web content

To know where the birds are going, researchers turn to citizen science and machine learning

Discover our social media profiles and other pages that are related to them.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(777) "Journal Reference: Miguel Fuentes, Benjamin M. Van Doren, Daniel Fink, Daniel Sheldon. BirdFlow Learning seasonal bird movements from eBird data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.14052 “Humans have been trying to figure out bird migration for a really long time,” says Dan Sheldon, professor of information and computer sciences at UMass Amherst, the paper’s ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4132) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Miguel Fuentes, Benjamin M. Van Doren, Daniel Fink, Daniel Sheldon. BirdFlow Learning seasonal bird movements from eBird data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.14052

“Humans have been trying to figure out bird migration for a really long time,” says Dan Sheldon, professor of information and computer sciences at UMass Amherst, the paper’s senior author and a passionate amateur birder. “But,” adds Miguel Fuentes, the paper’s lead author and graduate student in computer science at UMass Amherst, “it’s incredibly difficult to get precise, real-time information on which birds are where, let alone where, exactly, they are going.”

There have been many efforts, both previous and ongoing, to tag and track individual birds, which have yielded invaluable insights. But it’s difficult to physically tag birds in large enough numbers — not to mention the expense of such an undertaking — to form a complete enough picture to predict bird movements. “It’s really hard to understand how an entire species moves across the continent with tracking approaches,” says Sheldon, “because they tell you the routes that some birds caught in specific locations followed, but not how birds in completely different locations might move.”

In recent years, there’s been an explosion in the number of citizen scientists who monitor and report sightings of migratory birds. Birders around the world contribute more than 200 million annual bird sightings through eBird, a project managed by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and international partners. It’s one of the largest biodiversity-related science projects in existence and has hundreds of thousands of users, facilitating state-of-the-art species distribution modeling through the Lab’s eBird Status & Trends project. “eBird data is amazing because it shows where birds of a given species are every week across their entire range,” says Sheldon, “but it doesn’t track individuals, so we need to infer what routes individual birds follow to best explain the species-level patterns.”

BirdFlow draws on eBird’s Status & Trends database and its estimates of relative bird abundance and then runs that information through a probabilistic machine-learning model. This model is tuned with real-time GPS and satellite tracking data so that it can “learn” to predict where individual birds will move next as they migrate.

The researchers tested BirdFlow on 11 species of North American birds — including the American Woodcock, Wood Thrush and Swainson’s Hawk — and found that not only did BirdFlow outperform other models for tracking bird migration, it can accurately predict migration flows without the real-time GPS and satellite tracking data, which makes BirdFlow a valuable tool for tracking species that may literally fly under the radar.

“Birds today are experiencing rapid environmental change, and many species are declining,” says Benjamin Van Doren, a postdoctoral fellow at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and a co-author of the study. “Using BirdFlow, we can unite different data sources and paint a more complete picture of bird movements,” Van Doren adds, “with exciting applications for guiding conservation action.”

We want to thank the author of this write-up for this awesome web content

To know where the birds are going, researchers turn to citizen science and machine learning

Discover our social media profiles and other pages that are related to them.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675701624) } [1]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(53) "Discovery of a circovirus involved in human hepatitis" ["link"]=> string(85) "http://newsweather.org/science/discovery-of-a-circovirus-involved-in-human-hepatitis/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Mon, 06 Feb 2023 14:17:52 +0000" ["category"]=> string(48) "sciencecircovirusdiscoveryHepatitisHumaninvolved" ["guid"]=> string(31) "http://newsweather.org/?p=47679" ["description"]=> string(717) "Journal Reference: Philippe Pérot, Jacques Fourgeaud, Claire Rouzaud, Béatrice Regnault, Nicolas Da Rocha, Hélène Fontaine, Jérôme Le Pavec, Samuel Dolidon, Margaux Garzaro, Delphine Chrétien, Guillaume Morcrette, Thierry Jo Molina, Agnès Ferroni, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Olivier Lortholary, Anne Jamet, Marc Eloit. Circovirus Hepatitis Infection in Heart-Lung Transplant Patient, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2023; 29 (2): 286 DOI: ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(6020) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Philippe Pérot, Jacques Fourgeaud, Claire Rouzaud, Béatrice Regnault, Nicolas Da Rocha, Hélène Fontaine, Jérôme Le Pavec, Samuel Dolidon, Margaux Garzaro, Delphine Chrétien, Guillaume Morcrette, Thierry Jo Molina, Agnès Ferroni, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Olivier Lortholary, Anne Jamet, Marc Eloit. Circovirus Hepatitis Infection in Heart-Lung Transplant Patient, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2023; 29 (2): 286 DOI: 10.3201/eid2902.221468

Although the transmission of animal viruses to humans is regularly reported in the scientific literature, it is rare for a novel virus to be identified in a patient in Europe. But as part of a recent study, scientists and physicians have identified the first circovirus involved in human hepatitis. “The patient had unexplained chronic hepatitis, with few symptoms. She had received a heart-lung transplant 17 years earlier and had been monitored regularly since. We had access to a large number of samples over several years and were therefore able to identify this novel virus, which was completely unexpected,” explains Marc Eloit, last author of the study, Head of the Institut Pasteur’s Pathogen Discovery laboratory and a Professor of Virology at the Alfort National Veterinary School (EnvA). His laboratory specializes in the identification of pathogens in patients suspected of severe infection of unknown cause.

In March 2022, in collaboration with the Department of Clinical Microbiology at Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital (AP-HP), the pathological tissue samples of this 61-year-old female patient receiving immunosuppressive treatment, whose hepatitis had no identifiable cause, were sequenced to search for microbial sequences. The RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequences extracted from the tissues were analyzed and compared with those of known microbes. “The aim is to identify sequences of interest among all the sequences obtained, which is like searching for a needle in a haystack!” continues the scientist Marc Eloit. These thousands of RNA sequences were analyzed in parallel using mNGS (metagenomic next-generation sequencing) high-throughput sequencing techniques and sophisticated algorithms. After ruling out common etiologies, the analysis led to the identification of a previously unknown species of circovirus, provisionally named human circovirus 1 (HCirV-1). No other viral or bacterial sequence was found.

The involvement of HCirV-1 in the hepatitis was then demonstrated by analyzing samples taken from the patient in previous years as part of her post-transplant treatment. The results showed that the HCirV-1 viral genome was undetectable in the blood samples from 2017 to 2019, then that its concentration peaked in September 2021. Viral replication in liver cells was demonstrated (2 to 3% of liver cells were infected), pointing to the role of HCirV-1 in liver damage: once the virus has used the resources in the liver cell to replicate, it destroys the cell.

From November 2021 onwards, following antiviral treatment, the patient’s liver enzymes returned to normal levels, indicating the end of hepatic cytolysis.

Diagnosing hepatitis of unknown etiology remains a major challenge, as shown by the cases of acute hepatitis reported in children in the United Kingdom and Ireland last April and signaled by WHO. “We need to know the cause of the hepatitis, and especially whether or not it is viral, to be able to offer suitable treatment and monitor patients effectively. The identification of this novel virus that is pathogenic in humans, and the development of a test that can be performed by any hospital laboratory, offers a new tool for diagnosing and monitoring patients with hepatitis,” stresses Anne Jamet from the Department of Clinical Microbiology at Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital (AP-HP), who is also affiliated with Inserm and co-last author of the study.

Although some circoviruses are pathogenic for animals and vaccines can be administered, especially in pigs, this is the first known circovirus to be pathogenic for humans. The patient’s symptoms remained mild; the virus was able to be identified because she was being closely monitored following her combined transplant. The origin of the virus — whether it is circulating in humans or of animal origin — has yet to be identified, and the source of infection (contact, food, etc.) remains unknown. Following their discovery, the scientists developed a specific PCR test that is now available for etiological diagnosis of hepatitis of unknown origin. A serological test is also being developed.

“These results show the value of this type of sequencing analysis in identifying novel or unexpected pathogens. It is always important for clinicians to know whether or not an infection is viral so that they can adapt the treatment accordingly. It is also crucial to be able to identify a novel pathogen when an infection remains unexplained and to develop a diagnostic test, because any new case of human infection with an emerging pathogen may potentially signal the start of an outbreak,” concludes Marc Eloit. The test is available for the medical community and can now be easily performed for other cases of unexplained hepatitis.

We would like to thank the writer of this short article for this remarkable web content

Discovery of a circovirus involved in human hepatitis

You can find our social media profiles , as well as other pages related to it.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(717) "Journal Reference: Philippe Pérot, Jacques Fourgeaud, Claire Rouzaud, Béatrice Regnault, Nicolas Da Rocha, Hélène Fontaine, Jérôme Le Pavec, Samuel Dolidon, Margaux Garzaro, Delphine Chrétien, Guillaume Morcrette, Thierry Jo Molina, Agnès Ferroni, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Olivier Lortholary, Anne Jamet, Marc Eloit. Circovirus Hepatitis Infection in Heart-Lung Transplant Patient, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2023; 29 (2): 286 DOI: ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(6020) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Philippe Pérot, Jacques Fourgeaud, Claire Rouzaud, Béatrice Regnault, Nicolas Da Rocha, Hélène Fontaine, Jérôme Le Pavec, Samuel Dolidon, Margaux Garzaro, Delphine Chrétien, Guillaume Morcrette, Thierry Jo Molina, Agnès Ferroni, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Olivier Lortholary, Anne Jamet, Marc Eloit. Circovirus Hepatitis Infection in Heart-Lung Transplant Patient, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2023; 29 (2): 286 DOI: 10.3201/eid2902.221468

Although the transmission of animal viruses to humans is regularly reported in the scientific literature, it is rare for a novel virus to be identified in a patient in Europe. But as part of a recent study, scientists and physicians have identified the first circovirus involved in human hepatitis. “The patient had unexplained chronic hepatitis, with few symptoms. She had received a heart-lung transplant 17 years earlier and had been monitored regularly since. We had access to a large number of samples over several years and were therefore able to identify this novel virus, which was completely unexpected,” explains Marc Eloit, last author of the study, Head of the Institut Pasteur’s Pathogen Discovery laboratory and a Professor of Virology at the Alfort National Veterinary School (EnvA). His laboratory specializes in the identification of pathogens in patients suspected of severe infection of unknown cause.

In March 2022, in collaboration with the Department of Clinical Microbiology at Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital (AP-HP), the pathological tissue samples of this 61-year-old female patient receiving immunosuppressive treatment, whose hepatitis had no identifiable cause, were sequenced to search for microbial sequences. The RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequences extracted from the tissues were analyzed and compared with those of known microbes. “The aim is to identify sequences of interest among all the sequences obtained, which is like searching for a needle in a haystack!” continues the scientist Marc Eloit. These thousands of RNA sequences were analyzed in parallel using mNGS (metagenomic next-generation sequencing) high-throughput sequencing techniques and sophisticated algorithms. After ruling out common etiologies, the analysis led to the identification of a previously unknown species of circovirus, provisionally named human circovirus 1 (HCirV-1). No other viral or bacterial sequence was found.

The involvement of HCirV-1 in the hepatitis was then demonstrated by analyzing samples taken from the patient in previous years as part of her post-transplant treatment. The results showed that the HCirV-1 viral genome was undetectable in the blood samples from 2017 to 2019, then that its concentration peaked in September 2021. Viral replication in liver cells was demonstrated (2 to 3% of liver cells were infected), pointing to the role of HCirV-1 in liver damage: once the virus has used the resources in the liver cell to replicate, it destroys the cell.

From November 2021 onwards, following antiviral treatment, the patient’s liver enzymes returned to normal levels, indicating the end of hepatic cytolysis.

Diagnosing hepatitis of unknown etiology remains a major challenge, as shown by the cases of acute hepatitis reported in children in the United Kingdom and Ireland last April and signaled by WHO. “We need to know the cause of the hepatitis, and especially whether or not it is viral, to be able to offer suitable treatment and monitor patients effectively. The identification of this novel virus that is pathogenic in humans, and the development of a test that can be performed by any hospital laboratory, offers a new tool for diagnosing and monitoring patients with hepatitis,” stresses Anne Jamet from the Department of Clinical Microbiology at Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital (AP-HP), who is also affiliated with Inserm and co-last author of the study.

Although some circoviruses are pathogenic for animals and vaccines can be administered, especially in pigs, this is the first known circovirus to be pathogenic for humans. The patient’s symptoms remained mild; the virus was able to be identified because she was being closely monitored following her combined transplant. The origin of the virus — whether it is circulating in humans or of animal origin — has yet to be identified, and the source of infection (contact, food, etc.) remains unknown. Following their discovery, the scientists developed a specific PCR test that is now available for etiological diagnosis of hepatitis of unknown origin. A serological test is also being developed.

“These results show the value of this type of sequencing analysis in identifying novel or unexpected pathogens. It is always important for clinicians to know whether or not an infection is viral so that they can adapt the treatment accordingly. It is also crucial to be able to identify a novel pathogen when an infection remains unexplained and to develop a diagnostic test, because any new case of human infection with an emerging pathogen may potentially signal the start of an outbreak,” concludes Marc Eloit. The test is available for the medical community and can now be easily performed for other cases of unexplained hepatitis.

We would like to thank the writer of this short article for this remarkable web content

Discovery of a circovirus involved in human hepatitis

You can find our social media profiles , as well as other pages related to it.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675693072) } [2]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(99) "Learning with all your senses: Multimodal enrichment as the optimal learning strategy of the future" ["link"]=> string(130) "http://newsweather.org/science/learning-with-all-your-senses-multimodal-enrichment-as-the-optimal-learning-strategy-of-the-future/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Mon, 06 Feb 2023 11:59:19 +0000" ["category"]=> string(62) "scienceenrichmentFuturelearningMultimodalOPTIMALsensesstrategy" ["guid"]=> string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47677" ["description"]=> string(836) "Journal Reference: Brian Mathias, Katharina von Kriegstein. Enriched learning: behavior, brain, and computation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2023; 27 (1): 81 DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2022.10.007 In the review article, the two researchers compare these findings with cognitive, neuroscience, and computational theories of multimodal enrichment. Recent neuroscience research has found that the positive effects of enriched learning are ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3271) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Brian Mathias, Katharina von Kriegstein. Enriched learning: behavior, brain, and computation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2023; 27 (1): 81 DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2022.10.007

In the review article, the two researchers compare these findings with cognitive, neuroscience, and computational theories of multimodal enrichment. Recent neuroscience research has found that the positive effects of enriched learning are associated with response in brain regions that serve perception and motor function. For example, hearing a recently learned foreign language word, may elicit activity in motor brain regions if the word was associated with the performance of a congruent gesture during learning. These brain responses are causal to the benefits of multimodal enrichment for learning outcome. Computer algorithms confirm this hypothesis.

“The brain is optimized for learning with all the senses and with movement. Brain structures for perception and motor skills work together to promote this type of learning. We hope that our deeper understanding of the brain’s learning mechanisms, will facilitate the development of optimal learning strategies in the future,” explains Brian Mathias.

Katharina von Kriegstein adds, “The results of the literature we reviewed contribute to our understanding of why several long-used learning strategies, such as parts of the Montessori method, are effective. They also provide clear clues as to why some approaches are not as effective. Recently uncovered neuroscientific mechanisms may inspire the updating of cognitive and computational theories of learning, providing new hypotheses about learning. We anticipate that such an interdisciplinary and evidence-based approach will lead to the optimization of learning and teaching strategies in the future, for both humans and artificial systems.”

We want to give thanks to the author of this article for this amazing content

Learning with all your senses: Multimodal enrichment as the optimal learning strategy of the future

You can find our social media profiles here , as well as other pages related to them here.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(836) "Journal Reference: Brian Mathias, Katharina von Kriegstein. Enriched learning: behavior, brain, and computation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2023; 27 (1): 81 DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2022.10.007 In the review article, the two researchers compare these findings with cognitive, neuroscience, and computational theories of multimodal enrichment. Recent neuroscience research has found that the positive effects of enriched learning are ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(3271) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Brian Mathias, Katharina von Kriegstein. Enriched learning: behavior, brain, and computation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2023; 27 (1): 81 DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2022.10.007

In the review article, the two researchers compare these findings with cognitive, neuroscience, and computational theories of multimodal enrichment. Recent neuroscience research has found that the positive effects of enriched learning are associated with response in brain regions that serve perception and motor function. For example, hearing a recently learned foreign language word, may elicit activity in motor brain regions if the word was associated with the performance of a congruent gesture during learning. These brain responses are causal to the benefits of multimodal enrichment for learning outcome. Computer algorithms confirm this hypothesis.

“The brain is optimized for learning with all the senses and with movement. Brain structures for perception and motor skills work together to promote this type of learning. We hope that our deeper understanding of the brain’s learning mechanisms, will facilitate the development of optimal learning strategies in the future,” explains Brian Mathias.

Katharina von Kriegstein adds, “The results of the literature we reviewed contribute to our understanding of why several long-used learning strategies, such as parts of the Montessori method, are effective. They also provide clear clues as to why some approaches are not as effective. Recently uncovered neuroscientific mechanisms may inspire the updating of cognitive and computational theories of learning, providing new hypotheses about learning. We anticipate that such an interdisciplinary and evidence-based approach will lead to the optimization of learning and teaching strategies in the future, for both humans and artificial systems.”

We want to give thanks to the author of this article for this amazing content

Learning with all your senses: Multimodal enrichment as the optimal learning strategy of the future

You can find our social media profiles here , as well as other pages related to them here.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675684759) } [3]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(71) "Scientists release newly accurate map of all the matter in the universe" ["link"]=> string(103) "http://newsweather.org/science/scientists-release-newly-accurate-map-of-all-the-matter-in-the-universe/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Mon, 06 Feb 2023 05:06:58 +0000" ["category"]=> string(54) "scienceaccuratemapmatternewlyreleasescientistsuniverse" ["guid"]=> string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47675" ["description"]=> string(672) "Journal References: Y. Omori, E. J. Baxter, C. Chang, O. Friedrich, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, G. M. Bernstein, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, R. Chen, A. Choi, J. Cordero, T. M. Crawford, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, S. ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(13593) "

Journal References:

  1. Y. Omori, E. J. Baxter, C. Chang, O. Friedrich, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, G. M. Bernstein, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, R. Chen, A. Choi, J. Cordero, T. M. Crawford, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, S. Dodelson, C. Doux, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, X. Fang, A. Ferté, P. Fosalba, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, K. Herner, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, M. Jarvis, E. Krause, N. Kuropatkin, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, N. MacCrann, J. McCullough, J. Muir, J. Myles, A. Navarro-Alsina, S. Pandey, Y. Park, A. Porredon, J. Prat, M. Raveri, R. P. Rollins, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, J. Sanchez, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, B. A. Benson, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, J. E. Carlstrom, J. Carretero, C. L. Chang, R. Chown, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, A. T. Crites, M. E. S. Pereira, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, P. Doel, W. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, N. W. Halverson, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, D. J. James, L. Knox, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, M. Lima, D. Luong-Van, M. March, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, T. Natoli, S. Padin, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, A. K. Romer, J. E. Ruhl, E. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, J. D. Vieira, J. Weller, R. Williamson. Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. I. Construction of CMB lensing maps and modeling choices. Physical Review D, 2023; 107 (2) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023529
  2. C. Chang, Y. Omori, E. J. Baxter, C. Doux, A. Choi, S. Pandey, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, G. M. Bernstein, F. Bianchini, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, R. Chen, J. Cordero, T. M. Crawford, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, S. Dodelson, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, X. Fang, A. Ferté, P. Fosalba, O. Friedrich, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, K. Herner, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, M. Jarvis, A. Kovacs, E. Krause, N. Kuropatkin, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, N. MacCrann, J. McCullough, J. Muir, J. Myles, A. Navarro-Alsina, Y. Park, A. Porredon, J. Prat, M. Raveri, R. P. Rollins, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, J. Sanchez, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, B. A. Benson, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, J. E. Carlstrom, J. Carretero, C. L. Chang, R. Chown, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, A. T. Crites, M. E. S. Pereira, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, P. Doel, W. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, N. W. Halverson, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, D. J. James, L. Knox, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, M. Lima, D. Luong-Van, M. March, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, T. Natoli, S. Padin, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, M. Rodríguez-Monroy, A. K. Romer, J. E. Ruhl, E. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, J. D. Vieira, J. Weller, R. Williamson. Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. II. Cross-correlation measurements and cosmological constraints. Physical Review D, 2023; 107 (2) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023530
  3. T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, B. Ansarinejad, S. Avila, D. Bacon, E. J. Baxter, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, B. A. Benson, G. M. Bernstein, E. Bertin, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, E. Buckley-Geer, D. L. Burke, H. Camacho, A. Campos, J. E. Carlstrom, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, R. Cawthon, C. Chang, C. L. Chang, R. Chen, A. Choi, R. Chown, C. Conselice, J. Cordero, M. Costanzi, T. Crawford, A. T. Crites, M. Crocce, L. N. da Costa, C. Davis, T. M. Davis, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, J. DeRose, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, S. Dodelson, P. Doel, C. Doux, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, W. Everett, X. Fang, I. Ferrero, A. Ferté, B. Flaugher, P. Fosalba, O. Friedrich, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, N. W. Halverson, I. Harrison, K. Herner, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, B. Jain, D. J. James, M. Jarvis, T. Jeltema, S. Kent, L. Knox, A. Kovacs, E. Krause, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, C. Lidman, D. Luong-Van, J. J. McMahon, N. MacCrann, M. March, J. L. Marshall, P. Martini, J. McCullough, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, J. Muir, J. Myles, T. Natoli, A. Navarro-Alsina, R. C. Nichol, Y. Omori, S. Padin, S. Pandey, Y. Park, F. Paz-Chinchón, M. E. S. Pereira, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, A. Porredon, J. Prat, C. Pryke, M. Raveri, C. L. Reichardt, R. P. Rollins, A. K. Romer, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, J. E. Ruhl, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, E. Sanchez, J. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, M. E. C. Swanson, G. Tarle, C. To, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, J. D. Vieira, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, J. Weller, R. Williamson, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz. Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. III. Combined cosmological constraints. Physical Review D, 2023; 107 (2) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023531

When the universe began, matter was flung outward and gradually formed the planets, stars and galaxies that we know and love today. By carefully assembling a map of that matter today, scientists can try to understand the forces that shaped the evolution of the universe.

A group of scientists, including several with the University of Chicago and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, have released one of the most precise measurements ever made of how matter is distributed across the universe today.

Combining data from two major telescope surveys of the universe, the Dark Energy Survey and the South Pole Telescope, the analysis involved more than 150 researchers and is published as a set of three articles Jan. 31 in Physical Review D.

Among other findings, the analysis indicates that matter is not as “clumpy” as we would expect based on our current best model of the universe, which adds to a body of evidence that there may be something missing from our existing standard model of the universe.

Cooling and clumps

After the Big Bang created all the matter in the universe in a very hot, intense few moments about 13 billion years ago, this matter has been spreading outward, cooling and clumping as it goes. Scientists are very interested in tracing the path of this matter; by seeing where all the matter ended up, they can try to recreate what happened and what forces would have had to have been in play.

The first step is collecting enormous amounts of data with telescopes.

In this study, scientists combined data from two very different telescope surveys: The Dark Energy Survey, which surveyed the sky over six years from a mountaintop in Chile, and the South Pole Telescope, which looks for the faint traces of radiation that are still traveling across the sky from the first few moments of the universe.

Combining two different methods of looking at the sky reduces the chance that the results are thrown off by an error in one of the forms of measurement. “It functions like a cross-check, so it becomes a much more robust measurement than if you just used one or the other,” said UChicago astrophysicist Chihway Chang, one of the lead authors of the studies.

In both cases, the analysis looked at a phenomenon called gravitational lensing. As light travels across the universe, it can be slightly bent as it passes objects with lots of gravity, like galaxies.

This method catches both regular matter and dark matter — the mysterious form of matter that we have only detected due to its effects on regular matter — because both regular and dark matter exert gravity.

By rigorously analyzing these two sets of data, the scientists could infer where all the matter ended up in the universe. It is more precise than previous measurements — that is, it narrows down the possibilities for where this matter wound up — compared to previous analyses, the authors said.

The majority of the results fit perfectly with the currently accepted best theory of the universe.

But there are also signs of a crack — one that has been suggested in the past by other analyses, too.

“It seems like there are slightly less fluctuations in the current universe, than we would predict assuming our standard cosmological model anchored to the early universe,” said analysis coauthor and University of Hawaii astrophysicist Eric Baxter (UChicago PhD’14).

That is, if you make a model incorporating all the currently accepted physical laws, then take the readings from the beginning of the universe and extrapolate it forward through time, the results look slightly different from what we actually measure around us today.

Specifically, today’s readings find the universe is less “clumpy” — clustering in certain areas rather than evenly spread out — than the model would predict.

If other studies continue to find the same results, scientists say, it may mean there is something missing from our existing model of the universe, but the results are not yet to the statistical level that scientists consider to be ironclad. That will take further study.

However, the analysis is a landmark as it yielded useful information from two very different telescope surveys. This is a much-anticipated strategy for the future of astrophysics, as more large telescopes come online in the next decades, but few had actually been carried out yet.

“I think this exercise showed both the challenges and benefits of doing these kinds of analyses,” Chang said. “There’s a lot of new things you can do when you combine these different angles of looking at the universe.”

University of Chicago Kavli Associate Fellow Yuuki Omori was also a lead co-author for the papers. The South Pole Telescope is primarily funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy and is operated by a collaboration led by the University of Chicago. The Dark Energy Survey was an international collaboration coordinated through Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and funded by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and many institutions around the world.

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Scientists release newly accurate map of all the matter in the universe

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Journal References:

  1. Y. Omori, E. J. Baxter, C. Chang, O. Friedrich, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, G. M. Bernstein, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, R. Chen, A. Choi, J. Cordero, T. M. Crawford, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, S. Dodelson, C. Doux, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, X. Fang, A. Ferté, P. Fosalba, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, K. Herner, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, M. Jarvis, E. Krause, N. Kuropatkin, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, N. MacCrann, J. McCullough, J. Muir, J. Myles, A. Navarro-Alsina, S. Pandey, Y. Park, A. Porredon, J. Prat, M. Raveri, R. P. Rollins, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, J. Sanchez, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, B. A. Benson, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, J. E. Carlstrom, J. Carretero, C. L. Chang, R. Chown, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, A. T. Crites, M. E. S. Pereira, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, P. Doel, W. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, N. W. Halverson, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, D. J. James, L. Knox, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, M. Lima, D. Luong-Van, M. March, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, T. Natoli, S. Padin, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, A. K. Romer, J. E. Ruhl, E. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, J. D. Vieira, J. Weller, R. Williamson. Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. I. Construction of CMB lensing maps and modeling choices. Physical Review D, 2023; 107 (2) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023529
  2. C. Chang, Y. Omori, E. J. Baxter, C. Doux, A. Choi, S. Pandey, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, G. M. Bernstein, F. Bianchini, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, R. Chen, J. Cordero, T. M. Crawford, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, S. Dodelson, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, X. Fang, A. Ferté, P. Fosalba, O. Friedrich, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, K. Herner, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, M. Jarvis, A. Kovacs, E. Krause, N. Kuropatkin, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, N. MacCrann, J. McCullough, J. Muir, J. Myles, A. Navarro-Alsina, Y. Park, A. Porredon, J. Prat, M. Raveri, R. P. Rollins, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, J. Sanchez, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, B. A. Benson, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, J. E. Carlstrom, J. Carretero, C. L. Chang, R. Chown, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, A. T. Crites, M. E. S. Pereira, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, P. Doel, W. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, N. W. Halverson, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, D. J. James, L. Knox, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, M. Lima, D. Luong-Van, M. March, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, T. Natoli, S. Padin, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, M. Rodríguez-Monroy, A. K. Romer, J. E. Ruhl, E. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, J. D. Vieira, J. Weller, R. Williamson. Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. II. Cross-correlation measurements and cosmological constraints. Physical Review D, 2023; 107 (2) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023530
  3. T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, B. Ansarinejad, S. Avila, D. Bacon, E. J. Baxter, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, B. A. Benson, G. M. Bernstein, E. Bertin, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, E. Buckley-Geer, D. L. Burke, H. Camacho, A. Campos, J. E. Carlstrom, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, R. Cawthon, C. Chang, C. L. Chang, R. Chen, A. Choi, R. Chown, C. Conselice, J. Cordero, M. Costanzi, T. Crawford, A. T. Crites, M. Crocce, L. N. da Costa, C. Davis, T. M. Davis, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, J. DeRose, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, S. Dodelson, P. Doel, C. Doux, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, W. Everett, X. Fang, I. Ferrero, A. Ferté, B. Flaugher, P. Fosalba, O. Friedrich, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, N. W. Halverson, I. Harrison, K. Herner, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, B. Jain, D. J. James, M. Jarvis, T. Jeltema, S. Kent, L. Knox, A. Kovacs, E. Krause, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, C. Lidman, D. Luong-Van, J. J. McMahon, N. MacCrann, M. March, J. L. Marshall, P. Martini, J. McCullough, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, J. Muir, J. Myles, T. Natoli, A. Navarro-Alsina, R. C. Nichol, Y. Omori, S. Padin, S. Pandey, Y. Park, F. Paz-Chinchón, M. E. S. Pereira, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, A. Porredon, J. Prat, C. Pryke, M. Raveri, C. L. Reichardt, R. P. Rollins, A. K. Romer, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, J. E. Ruhl, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, E. Sanchez, J. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, M. E. C. Swanson, G. Tarle, C. To, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, J. D. Vieira, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, J. Weller, R. Williamson, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz. Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. III. Combined cosmological constraints. Physical Review D, 2023; 107 (2) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023531

When the universe began, matter was flung outward and gradually formed the planets, stars and galaxies that we know and love today. By carefully assembling a map of that matter today, scientists can try to understand the forces that shaped the evolution of the universe.

A group of scientists, including several with the University of Chicago and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, have released one of the most precise measurements ever made of how matter is distributed across the universe today.

Combining data from two major telescope surveys of the universe, the Dark Energy Survey and the South Pole Telescope, the analysis involved more than 150 researchers and is published as a set of three articles Jan. 31 in Physical Review D.

Among other findings, the analysis indicates that matter is not as “clumpy” as we would expect based on our current best model of the universe, which adds to a body of evidence that there may be something missing from our existing standard model of the universe.

Cooling and clumps

After the Big Bang created all the matter in the universe in a very hot, intense few moments about 13 billion years ago, this matter has been spreading outward, cooling and clumping as it goes. Scientists are very interested in tracing the path of this matter; by seeing where all the matter ended up, they can try to recreate what happened and what forces would have had to have been in play.

The first step is collecting enormous amounts of data with telescopes.

In this study, scientists combined data from two very different telescope surveys: The Dark Energy Survey, which surveyed the sky over six years from a mountaintop in Chile, and the South Pole Telescope, which looks for the faint traces of radiation that are still traveling across the sky from the first few moments of the universe.

Combining two different methods of looking at the sky reduces the chance that the results are thrown off by an error in one of the forms of measurement. “It functions like a cross-check, so it becomes a much more robust measurement than if you just used one or the other,” said UChicago astrophysicist Chihway Chang, one of the lead authors of the studies.

In both cases, the analysis looked at a phenomenon called gravitational lensing. As light travels across the universe, it can be slightly bent as it passes objects with lots of gravity, like galaxies.

This method catches both regular matter and dark matter — the mysterious form of matter that we have only detected due to its effects on regular matter — because both regular and dark matter exert gravity.

By rigorously analyzing these two sets of data, the scientists could infer where all the matter ended up in the universe. It is more precise than previous measurements — that is, it narrows down the possibilities for where this matter wound up — compared to previous analyses, the authors said.

The majority of the results fit perfectly with the currently accepted best theory of the universe.

But there are also signs of a crack — one that has been suggested in the past by other analyses, too.

“It seems like there are slightly less fluctuations in the current universe, than we would predict assuming our standard cosmological model anchored to the early universe,” said analysis coauthor and University of Hawaii astrophysicist Eric Baxter (UChicago PhD’14).

That is, if you make a model incorporating all the currently accepted physical laws, then take the readings from the beginning of the universe and extrapolate it forward through time, the results look slightly different from what we actually measure around us today.

Specifically, today’s readings find the universe is less “clumpy” — clustering in certain areas rather than evenly spread out — than the model would predict.

If other studies continue to find the same results, scientists say, it may mean there is something missing from our existing model of the universe, but the results are not yet to the statistical level that scientists consider to be ironclad. That will take further study.

However, the analysis is a landmark as it yielded useful information from two very different telescope surveys. This is a much-anticipated strategy for the future of astrophysics, as more large telescopes come online in the next decades, but few had actually been carried out yet.

“I think this exercise showed both the challenges and benefits of doing these kinds of analyses,” Chang said. “There’s a lot of new things you can do when you combine these different angles of looking at the universe.”

University of Chicago Kavli Associate Fellow Yuuki Omori was also a lead co-author for the papers. The South Pole Telescope is primarily funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy and is operated by a collaboration led by the University of Chicago. The Dark Energy Survey was an international collaboration coordinated through Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and funded by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and many institutions around the world.

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Scientists release newly accurate map of all the matter in the universe

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" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675660018) } [4]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(31) "Amplified search for new forces" ["link"]=> string(63) "http://newsweather.org/science/amplified-search-for-new-forces/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Mon, 06 Feb 2023 00:32:45 +0000" ["category"]=> string(28) "scienceamplifiedforcessearch" ["guid"]=> string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47673" ["description"]=> string(596) "Journal Reference: Yuanhong Wang, Ying Huang, Chang Guo, Min Jiang, Xiang Kang, Haowen Su, Yushu Qin, Wei Ji, Dongdong Hu, Xinhua Peng, Dmitry Budker. Search for exotic parity-violation interactions with quantum spin amplifiers. Science Advances, 2023; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.ade0353 Numerous theories predict the existence of exotic interactions beyond the Standard Model. They differ from ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(5165) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Yuanhong Wang, Ying Huang, Chang Guo, Min Jiang, Xiang Kang, Haowen Su, Yushu Qin, Wei Ji, Dongdong Hu, Xinhua Peng, Dmitry Budker. Search for exotic parity-violation interactions with quantum spin amplifiers. Science Advances, 2023; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.ade0353

Numerous theories predict the existence of exotic interactions beyond the Standard Model. They differ from the four known interactions and are mediated by previously unknown exchange particles. In particular, parity-violating interactions, i.e., where mirror-symmetric is broken, are currently experiencing a special interest. On the one hand, because this would immediately indicate the particular type of new physics we are dealing with, and on the other hand, because their effects are easier to separate from spurious systematic effects, that usually do not show mirror-symmetry breaking. “In the current article, we take a close look at such an interaction between the spins of electrons and the spins of neutrons, mediated by a hypothetical Z’ boson. In a mirrored world, this interaction would lead to a different result; parity is violated here,” explains Dmitry Budker.

This “result” looks like this: The electron spins within a source are all aligned in one direction, i.e. polarized, and the polarization is continuously modulated, thus creating an exotic field that is perceived as a magnetic field and can be measured using a sensor. In a mirrored world, the exotic field would not point in the same direction as would be expected in a “real” mirror image, but in the opposite direction: the parity of this interaction is violated.

SAPPHIRE — the new gem in the search for new physics

“Spin Amplifier for Particle PHysIcs REsearch” — SAPPHIRE for short — is what the researchers have named their setup, which is based on the two elements rubidium and xenon. They have already used this technique in a similar form to search for other exotic interactions and for dark matter fields.

Specifically, in the experimental search for exotic spin-spin interactions, two chambers filled with the vapor of one of the two elements are positioned in close proximity to each other: “In our experiment, we use polarized electron spins of rubidium-87 atoms as a spin source and polarized neutron spins of the noble gas xenon, or more precisely the isotope xenon-129, as a spin sensor,” says Dmitry Budker.

The trick is that the special structure and the polarized xenon atoms in the spin sensor initially amplify the field generated in the rubidium source: thus, the effect triggered by a potential exotic field would be a factor of 200 larger. Now the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance comes into play, i.e. the fact that nuclear spins react to magnetic fields that oscillate at a certain resonance frequency. Rubidium-87 atoms are also present in a small proportion in the sensor cell for this purpose. They in turn act as an extremely sensitive magnetometer to determine the strength of the resonance signal.

The detection of such an exotic field in the right frequency range would then be the clue to the new interaction we are looking for. Other special experimental details ensure that the setup is particularly sensitive in the frequency range of interest and less sensitive to spurious effects from other magnetic fields that inevitably also arise in the experiment.

“All in all, this is a rather intricate setup that has required a careful design and calibration. It is highly rewarding to work on such challenging and interesting problems with our long-time collaborators from the University of Science and Technology (USTC) in Hefei, China who hosted the experiment,” reports Dmitry Budker.

After successful proof-of-principle, the scientists started the first series of measurements to search for the exotic interaction. Although they have not yet been able to find a corresponding signal after 24 hours of measurements, the five orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity has enabled them to set constraints on the strength of the new exchange particle’s interaction with Standard Model particles. Further optimization could even improve the experimental sensitivity to the special exotic interaction by another eight orders of magnitude. This makes it seem possible to use the ultrasensitive SAPPHIRE setup to discover and study a new physics with potential Z’ bosons.

We want to say thanks to the writer of this write-up for this awesome content

Amplified search for new forces

Our social media profiles here as well as other related pages herehttp://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(596) "Journal Reference: Yuanhong Wang, Ying Huang, Chang Guo, Min Jiang, Xiang Kang, Haowen Su, Yushu Qin, Wei Ji, Dongdong Hu, Xinhua Peng, Dmitry Budker. Search for exotic parity-violation interactions with quantum spin amplifiers. Science Advances, 2023; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.ade0353 Numerous theories predict the existence of exotic interactions beyond the Standard Model. They differ from ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(5165) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Yuanhong Wang, Ying Huang, Chang Guo, Min Jiang, Xiang Kang, Haowen Su, Yushu Qin, Wei Ji, Dongdong Hu, Xinhua Peng, Dmitry Budker. Search for exotic parity-violation interactions with quantum spin amplifiers. Science Advances, 2023; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.ade0353

Numerous theories predict the existence of exotic interactions beyond the Standard Model. They differ from the four known interactions and are mediated by previously unknown exchange particles. In particular, parity-violating interactions, i.e., where mirror-symmetric is broken, are currently experiencing a special interest. On the one hand, because this would immediately indicate the particular type of new physics we are dealing with, and on the other hand, because their effects are easier to separate from spurious systematic effects, that usually do not show mirror-symmetry breaking. “In the current article, we take a close look at such an interaction between the spins of electrons and the spins of neutrons, mediated by a hypothetical Z’ boson. In a mirrored world, this interaction would lead to a different result; parity is violated here,” explains Dmitry Budker.

This “result” looks like this: The electron spins within a source are all aligned in one direction, i.e. polarized, and the polarization is continuously modulated, thus creating an exotic field that is perceived as a magnetic field and can be measured using a sensor. In a mirrored world, the exotic field would not point in the same direction as would be expected in a “real” mirror image, but in the opposite direction: the parity of this interaction is violated.

SAPPHIRE — the new gem in the search for new physics

“Spin Amplifier for Particle PHysIcs REsearch” — SAPPHIRE for short — is what the researchers have named their setup, which is based on the two elements rubidium and xenon. They have already used this technique in a similar form to search for other exotic interactions and for dark matter fields.

Specifically, in the experimental search for exotic spin-spin interactions, two chambers filled with the vapor of one of the two elements are positioned in close proximity to each other: “In our experiment, we use polarized electron spins of rubidium-87 atoms as a spin source and polarized neutron spins of the noble gas xenon, or more precisely the isotope xenon-129, as a spin sensor,” says Dmitry Budker.

The trick is that the special structure and the polarized xenon atoms in the spin sensor initially amplify the field generated in the rubidium source: thus, the effect triggered by a potential exotic field would be a factor of 200 larger. Now the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance comes into play, i.e. the fact that nuclear spins react to magnetic fields that oscillate at a certain resonance frequency. Rubidium-87 atoms are also present in a small proportion in the sensor cell for this purpose. They in turn act as an extremely sensitive magnetometer to determine the strength of the resonance signal.

The detection of such an exotic field in the right frequency range would then be the clue to the new interaction we are looking for. Other special experimental details ensure that the setup is particularly sensitive in the frequency range of interest and less sensitive to spurious effects from other magnetic fields that inevitably also arise in the experiment.

“All in all, this is a rather intricate setup that has required a careful design and calibration. It is highly rewarding to work on such challenging and interesting problems with our long-time collaborators from the University of Science and Technology (USTC) in Hefei, China who hosted the experiment,” reports Dmitry Budker.

After successful proof-of-principle, the scientists started the first series of measurements to search for the exotic interaction. Although they have not yet been able to find a corresponding signal after 24 hours of measurements, the five orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity has enabled them to set constraints on the strength of the new exchange particle’s interaction with Standard Model particles. Further optimization could even improve the experimental sensitivity to the special exotic interaction by another eight orders of magnitude. This makes it seem possible to use the ultrasensitive SAPPHIRE setup to discover and study a new physics with potential Z’ bosons.

We want to say thanks to the writer of this write-up for this awesome content

Amplified search for new forces

Our social media profiles here as well as other related pages herehttp://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675643565) } [5]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(66) "How plants are inspiring new ways to extract value from wastewater" ["link"]=> string(98) "http://newsweather.org/science/how-plants-are-inspiring-new-ways-to-extract-value-from-wastewater/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 05 Feb 2023 22:14:29 +0000" ["category"]=> string(43) "scienceextractinspiringplantswastewaterways" ["guid"]=> string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47671" ["description"]=> string(733) "Journal Reference: Annamaria De Rosa, Samantha McGaughey, Isobel Magrath, Caitlin Byrt. Molecular membrane separation: plants inspire new technologies. New Phytologist, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/nph.18762 The ANU researchers are adapting plant ‘membrane separation mechanisms’ so they can be embedded in new wastewater recycling technologies. This approach offers a sustainable solution to help manage the resources required for ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(5148) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Annamaria De Rosa, Samantha McGaughey, Isobel Magrath, Caitlin Byrt. Molecular membrane separation: plants inspire new technologies. New Phytologist, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/nph.18762

The ANU researchers are adapting plant ‘membrane separation mechanisms’ so they can be embedded in new wastewater recycling technologies. This approach offers a sustainable solution to help manage the resources required for the world’s food, energy and water security by providing a way to harvest, recycle and reuse valuable metal, mineral and nutrient resources from liquid wastes.

The technology could benefit a range of industries such as agriculture, aquaculture, desalination, battery recycling and mining. It could also help companies rethink their approach to how they deal with waste by creating a way to extract value from wastewater. The research also has implications for flood- and drought-prone areas across Australia.

It’s estimated global wastewater contains three million metric tonnes of phosphorus, 16.6 million metric tonnes of nitrogen and 6.3 million metric tonnes of potassium. The recovery of these nutrients from wastewater could offset 13.4 per cent of global agricultural demand for these resources.

The ammonia and hydrogen molecules, among others, that are embedded in wastewater could provide electricity to 158 million households.

“The world’s wastewater contains a jumbled mess of resources that are incredibly valuable, but only in their pure form. A big challenge researchers face is figuring out how to efficiently extract these valuable minerals, metals and nutrients while retaining their purity,” ANU plant scientist Associate Professor Caitlin Byrt said.

“The Australian mining industry for example creates more than 500 million tonnes of waste per year, and these wastes are rich in resources like copper, lithium and iron. But at the moment the liquid waste is just a problem; it can’t be dumped and it can’t be used. It’s just waste unless each resource can be separated out in a pure form.

“This is particularly the case in the battery recycling space; you have this huge, rich source of lithium inside dead batteries, but we can’t yet extract or reuse it efficiently. Harvesting resources from industrial and urban waste is a key step towards transitioning to a circular green economy and building a sustainable future, as well as reducing our carbon footprint.”

The researchers investigated the specialised molecular mechanisms that help plants recognise and separate different metal, mineral and nutrient molecules contained in soil, allowing them to sort the good from the bad — an essential biological process necessary for their growth and development.

“Resources such as boron, iron, lithium and phosphorus are used in battery technologies and plants are masters at separating these types of resources,” Associate Professor Byrt said.

Ammonia, a compound used to create fertiliser and an essential material in crop production, is another key resource scientists are looking to extract from liquid waste solutions.

“Fertiliser costs are going through the roof, which puts a lot of pressure on Australian farmers to be able to afford these higher prices and yet we’re wasting huge proportions of these molecules and that’s causing environmental problems,” Associate Professor Byrt said.

“Ammonia is also a critical storage molecule for hydrogen fuels. So, as we continue to develop hydrogen fuel industries, there will be an increase in demand for ammonia for use as a storage molecule, because that’s how the hydrogen fuel industry will be able to transport the stored hydrogen around and ultimately use it as a potential fuel source for fuelling cars and other technologies.”

Associate Professor Byrt said advances in precision separation technology could also offer security to flood- and drought-prone communities across Australia by providing them with portable, secure and reliable access to clean drinking water in the face of worsening weather events as a result of climate change.

“Clean water and the security of nutrient resources underpin agricultural productivity. Development of technologies to sustainably manage these resources is essential for food security in Australia and globally,” she said.

We would love to thank the writer of this write-up for this amazing content

How plants are inspiring new ways to extract value from wastewater

Find here our social media profiles , as well as other related pageshttp://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(733) "Journal Reference: Annamaria De Rosa, Samantha McGaughey, Isobel Magrath, Caitlin Byrt. Molecular membrane separation: plants inspire new technologies. New Phytologist, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/nph.18762 The ANU researchers are adapting plant ‘membrane separation mechanisms’ so they can be embedded in new wastewater recycling technologies. This approach offers a sustainable solution to help manage the resources required for ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(5148) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Annamaria De Rosa, Samantha McGaughey, Isobel Magrath, Caitlin Byrt. Molecular membrane separation: plants inspire new technologies. New Phytologist, 2023; DOI: 10.1111/nph.18762

The ANU researchers are adapting plant ‘membrane separation mechanisms’ so they can be embedded in new wastewater recycling technologies. This approach offers a sustainable solution to help manage the resources required for the world’s food, energy and water security by providing a way to harvest, recycle and reuse valuable metal, mineral and nutrient resources from liquid wastes.

The technology could benefit a range of industries such as agriculture, aquaculture, desalination, battery recycling and mining. It could also help companies rethink their approach to how they deal with waste by creating a way to extract value from wastewater. The research also has implications for flood- and drought-prone areas across Australia.

It’s estimated global wastewater contains three million metric tonnes of phosphorus, 16.6 million metric tonnes of nitrogen and 6.3 million metric tonnes of potassium. The recovery of these nutrients from wastewater could offset 13.4 per cent of global agricultural demand for these resources.

The ammonia and hydrogen molecules, among others, that are embedded in wastewater could provide electricity to 158 million households.

“The world’s wastewater contains a jumbled mess of resources that are incredibly valuable, but only in their pure form. A big challenge researchers face is figuring out how to efficiently extract these valuable minerals, metals and nutrients while retaining their purity,” ANU plant scientist Associate Professor Caitlin Byrt said.

“The Australian mining industry for example creates more than 500 million tonnes of waste per year, and these wastes are rich in resources like copper, lithium and iron. But at the moment the liquid waste is just a problem; it can’t be dumped and it can’t be used. It’s just waste unless each resource can be separated out in a pure form.

“This is particularly the case in the battery recycling space; you have this huge, rich source of lithium inside dead batteries, but we can’t yet extract or reuse it efficiently. Harvesting resources from industrial and urban waste is a key step towards transitioning to a circular green economy and building a sustainable future, as well as reducing our carbon footprint.”

The researchers investigated the specialised molecular mechanisms that help plants recognise and separate different metal, mineral and nutrient molecules contained in soil, allowing them to sort the good from the bad — an essential biological process necessary for their growth and development.

“Resources such as boron, iron, lithium and phosphorus are used in battery technologies and plants are masters at separating these types of resources,” Associate Professor Byrt said.

Ammonia, a compound used to create fertiliser and an essential material in crop production, is another key resource scientists are looking to extract from liquid waste solutions.

“Fertiliser costs are going through the roof, which puts a lot of pressure on Australian farmers to be able to afford these higher prices and yet we’re wasting huge proportions of these molecules and that’s causing environmental problems,” Associate Professor Byrt said.

“Ammonia is also a critical storage molecule for hydrogen fuels. So, as we continue to develop hydrogen fuel industries, there will be an increase in demand for ammonia for use as a storage molecule, because that’s how the hydrogen fuel industry will be able to transport the stored hydrogen around and ultimately use it as a potential fuel source for fuelling cars and other technologies.”

Associate Professor Byrt said advances in precision separation technology could also offer security to flood- and drought-prone communities across Australia by providing them with portable, secure and reliable access to clean drinking water in the face of worsening weather events as a result of climate change.

“Clean water and the security of nutrient resources underpin agricultural productivity. Development of technologies to sustainably manage these resources is essential for food security in Australia and globally,” she said.

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How plants are inspiring new ways to extract value from wastewater

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" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675635269) } [6]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(85) "Study links adoption of electric vehicles with less air pollution and improved health" ["link"]=> string(117) "http://newsweather.org/science/study-links-adoption-of-electric-vehicles-with-less-air-pollution-and-improved-health/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 05 Feb 2023 19:57:52 +0000" ["category"]=> string(67) "scienceadoptionairelectricHealthimprovedlinkspollutionstudyvehicles" ["guid"]=> string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47669" ["description"]=> string(757) "Journal Reference: Erika Garcia, Jill Johnston, Rob McConnell, Lawrence Palinkas, Sandrah P. Eckel. California’s early transition to electric vehicles: Observed health and air quality co-benefits. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 161761 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161761 A team of researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC have now begun to document the actual impact of ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(6766) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Erika Garcia, Jill Johnston, Rob McConnell, Lawrence Palinkas, Sandrah P. Eckel. California’s early transition to electric vehicles: Observed health and air quality co-benefits. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 161761 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161761

A team of researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC have now begun to document the actual impact of electric vehicle adoption in the first study to use real-world data to link electric cars, air pollution and health. Leveraging publicly available datasets, the researchers analyzed a “natural experiment” occurring in California as residents in the state rapidly transitioned to electric cars, or light-duty zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs). The results were just published in the journal Science of the Total Environment.

The team compared data on total ZEV registration, air pollution levels and asthma-related emergency room visits across the state between 2013 to 2019. As ZEV adoption increased within a given zip code, local air pollution levels and emergency room visits dropped.

“When we think about the actions related to climate change, often it’s on a global level,” said Erika Garcia, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor of population and public health sciences at the Keck School of Medicine and the study’s lead author. “But the idea that changes being made at the local level can improve the health of your own community could be a powerful message to the public and to policy makers.”

The researchers also found that while total ZEVs increased over time, adoption was considerably slower in low-resource zip codes — what the researchers refer to as the “adoption gap.” That disparity points to an opportunity to restore environmental justice in communities that are disproportionately affected by pollution and related health problems.

“The impacts of climate change on health can be challenging to talk about because they can feel very scary,” said Sandrah Eckel, PhD, an associate professor of population and public health sciences at the Keck School of Medicine and the study’s senior author. “We’re excited about shifting the conversation towards climate change mitigation and adaptation, and these results suggest that transitioning to ZEVs is a key piece of that.”

Benefits for health and the climate

To study the effects of electric vehicle adoption, the research team analyzed and compared four different datasets. First, they obtained data on ZEVs (which includes battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and hydrogen fuel cell cars) from the California Department of Motor Vehicles and tabulated the total number registered in each zip code for every year between 2013 and 2019.

They also obtained data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air monitoring sites on levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an air pollutant related to traffic, and zip code level asthma-related visits to the emergency room. Asthma is one of the health concerns long linked with air pollutants such as NO2, which can also cause and exacerbate other respiratory diseases, as well as problems with the heart, brain and other organ systems.

Finally, the researchers calculated the percentage of adults in each zip code who held bachelor’s degrees. Educational attainment levels are frequently used as an indicator of a neighborhood’s socioeconomic status.

At the zip code level, for every additional 20 ZEVs per 1,000 people, there was a 3.2% drop in the rate of asthma-related emergency visits and a small suggestive reduction in NO2 levels. On average across zip codes in the state, ZEVs increased from 1.4 to 14.6 per 1,000 people between 2013 and 2019. ZEV adoption was significantly lower in zip codes with lower levels of educational attainment. For example, a zip code with 17% of the population having a bachelor’s degree had, on average, an annual increase of 0.70 ZEVs per 1,000 people compared to an annual increase of 3.6 ZEVs per 1,000 people for a zip code with 47% of the population having a bachelor’s degree.

Past research has shown that underserved communities, such as lower-income neighborhoods, tend to face worse pollution and associated respiratory problems than more affluent areas. If ZEVs replace gas-powered cars in those neighborhoods, they could stand to benefit substantially.

“Should continuing research support our findings, we want to make sure that those communities that are overburdened with the traffic-related air pollution are truly benefiting from this climate mitigation effort,” Garcia said.

More to learn

While climate change is a massive health threat, mitigating it offers a massive public health opportunity, Eckel said. As one of the first studies to quantify the real-world environmental and health benefits of ZEVs, the research can help demonstrate the power of this mitigation measure, including possibly reduced health care utilization and expenditures.

The findings are promising, Garcia said, but many questions remain. Future studies should consider additional impacts of ZEVs, including emissions related to brake and tire wear, mining of materials for their manufacture, and disposal of old cars. The researchers also hope to study additional types of pollutants and other classes of vehicles, in addition to conducting a follow-up study of the effects of the ever-growing share of ZEVs in the state.

Moving forward, transitioning to ZEVs is just one part of the solution, Eckel said. Shifting to public transport and active transport, including walking and biking, are other key ways to boost environmental and public health.

This work was supported by the University of Southern California Office of Research Strategic Directions for Research Award and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences [P30ES007048, P2CES033433].

We would love to thank the author of this article for this incredible content

Study links adoption of electric vehicles with less air pollution and improved health

Explore our social media profiles and other pages related to themhttp://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(757) "Journal Reference: Erika Garcia, Jill Johnston, Rob McConnell, Lawrence Palinkas, Sandrah P. Eckel. California’s early transition to electric vehicles: Observed health and air quality co-benefits. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 161761 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161761 A team of researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC have now begun to document the actual impact of ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(6766) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Erika Garcia, Jill Johnston, Rob McConnell, Lawrence Palinkas, Sandrah P. Eckel. California’s early transition to electric vehicles: Observed health and air quality co-benefits. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 161761 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161761

A team of researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC have now begun to document the actual impact of electric vehicle adoption in the first study to use real-world data to link electric cars, air pollution and health. Leveraging publicly available datasets, the researchers analyzed a “natural experiment” occurring in California as residents in the state rapidly transitioned to electric cars, or light-duty zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs). The results were just published in the journal Science of the Total Environment.

The team compared data on total ZEV registration, air pollution levels and asthma-related emergency room visits across the state between 2013 to 2019. As ZEV adoption increased within a given zip code, local air pollution levels and emergency room visits dropped.

“When we think about the actions related to climate change, often it’s on a global level,” said Erika Garcia, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor of population and public health sciences at the Keck School of Medicine and the study’s lead author. “But the idea that changes being made at the local level can improve the health of your own community could be a powerful message to the public and to policy makers.”

The researchers also found that while total ZEVs increased over time, adoption was considerably slower in low-resource zip codes — what the researchers refer to as the “adoption gap.” That disparity points to an opportunity to restore environmental justice in communities that are disproportionately affected by pollution and related health problems.

“The impacts of climate change on health can be challenging to talk about because they can feel very scary,” said Sandrah Eckel, PhD, an associate professor of population and public health sciences at the Keck School of Medicine and the study’s senior author. “We’re excited about shifting the conversation towards climate change mitigation and adaptation, and these results suggest that transitioning to ZEVs is a key piece of that.”

Benefits for health and the climate

To study the effects of electric vehicle adoption, the research team analyzed and compared four different datasets. First, they obtained data on ZEVs (which includes battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and hydrogen fuel cell cars) from the California Department of Motor Vehicles and tabulated the total number registered in each zip code for every year between 2013 and 2019.

They also obtained data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air monitoring sites on levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an air pollutant related to traffic, and zip code level asthma-related visits to the emergency room. Asthma is one of the health concerns long linked with air pollutants such as NO2, which can also cause and exacerbate other respiratory diseases, as well as problems with the heart, brain and other organ systems.

Finally, the researchers calculated the percentage of adults in each zip code who held bachelor’s degrees. Educational attainment levels are frequently used as an indicator of a neighborhood’s socioeconomic status.

At the zip code level, for every additional 20 ZEVs per 1,000 people, there was a 3.2% drop in the rate of asthma-related emergency visits and a small suggestive reduction in NO2 levels. On average across zip codes in the state, ZEVs increased from 1.4 to 14.6 per 1,000 people between 2013 and 2019. ZEV adoption was significantly lower in zip codes with lower levels of educational attainment. For example, a zip code with 17% of the population having a bachelor’s degree had, on average, an annual increase of 0.70 ZEVs per 1,000 people compared to an annual increase of 3.6 ZEVs per 1,000 people for a zip code with 47% of the population having a bachelor’s degree.

Past research has shown that underserved communities, such as lower-income neighborhoods, tend to face worse pollution and associated respiratory problems than more affluent areas. If ZEVs replace gas-powered cars in those neighborhoods, they could stand to benefit substantially.

“Should continuing research support our findings, we want to make sure that those communities that are overburdened with the traffic-related air pollution are truly benefiting from this climate mitigation effort,” Garcia said.

More to learn

While climate change is a massive health threat, mitigating it offers a massive public health opportunity, Eckel said. As one of the first studies to quantify the real-world environmental and health benefits of ZEVs, the research can help demonstrate the power of this mitigation measure, including possibly reduced health care utilization and expenditures.

The findings are promising, Garcia said, but many questions remain. Future studies should consider additional impacts of ZEVs, including emissions related to brake and tire wear, mining of materials for their manufacture, and disposal of old cars. The researchers also hope to study additional types of pollutants and other classes of vehicles, in addition to conducting a follow-up study of the effects of the ever-growing share of ZEVs in the state.

Moving forward, transitioning to ZEVs is just one part of the solution, Eckel said. Shifting to public transport and active transport, including walking and biking, are other key ways to boost environmental and public health.

This work was supported by the University of Southern California Office of Research Strategic Directions for Research Award and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences [P30ES007048, P2CES033433].

We would love to thank the author of this article for this incredible content

Study links adoption of electric vehicles with less air pollution and improved health

Explore our social media profiles and other pages related to themhttp://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675627072) } [7]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(62) "‘Spleen-on-a-chip’ yields insight into sickle cell disease" ["link"]=> string(88) "http://newsweather.org/science/spleen-on-a-chip-yields-insight-into-sickle-cell-disease/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 05 Feb 2023 17:41:04 +0000" ["category"]=> string(50) "scienceCelldiseaseinsightsickleSpleenonachipyields" ["guid"]=> string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47667" ["description"]=> string(657) "Journal Reference: Yuhao Qiang, Abdoulaye Sissoko, Zixiang L. Liu, Ting Dong, Fuyin Zheng, Fang Kong, John M. Higgins, George E. Karniadakis, Pierre A. Buffet, Subra Suresh, Ming Dao. Microfluidic study of retention and elimination of abnormal red blood cells by human spleen with implications for sickle cell disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(7330) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Yuhao Qiang, Abdoulaye Sissoko, Zixiang L. Liu, Ting Dong, Fuyin Zheng, Fang Kong, John M. Higgins, George E. Karniadakis, Pierre A. Buffet, Subra Suresh, Ming Dao. Microfluidic study of retention and elimination of abnormal red blood cells by human spleen with implications for sickle cell disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2023; 120 (6) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2217607120

Researchers at MIT, Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and other institutions have now designed a microfluidic device, or “spleen-on-a-chip,” that can model how this phenomenon, known as acute splenic sequestration, arises.

The researchers found that low oxygen levels make it more likely that the spleen’s filters will become clogged. They also showed that boosting oxygen levels can unclog the filters, which may help to explain how blood transfusions help patients suffering from this condition.

“If we increase the oxygen levels, it will reverse the blockage,” says Ming Dao, a principal research scientist in MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering and one of the senior authors of the study. “This mimics what’s done when there’s a splenic sequestration crisis. The first thing doctors do is transfusion, and in most cases, that gives some relief to the patient.”

Subra Suresh, former dean of engineering at MIT, the Vannevar Bush Professor Emeritus of Engineering, and former president of Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University; Pierre Buffet, medical director of the Pasteur Institute and a professor at the University of Paris; and George Karniadakis, the Robinson and Barstow Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Brown University, are also senior authors of the study. MIT postdoc Yuhao Qiang is the lead author of the paper, which appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week.

Clogged filters

Most red blood cells have a lifespan of about 120 days, so nearly 1 percent of the supply has to be removed every day. Within the spleen, blood flows through tissue known as red pulp, which contains narrow passages called interendothelial slits.

These slits, formed by the spaces between the endothelial cells lining the spleen’s blood vessels, have maximum opening dimensions significantly smaller than those of a red blood cell. Any red blood cells that can’t pass through these tiny openings, because they’re damaged, stiffened or misshapen, become trapped and are destroyed by immune cells called macrophages.

To model the spleen’s filtration function, the researchers created a microfluidic device with two modules — the S chip, which mimics the interendothelial slits, and the M chip, which mimics the macrophages. The device also includes a gas channel that can be used to control the oxygen concentration of each chip to simulate conditions in the body.

Using this device, the researchers sought to better understand acute splenic sequestration, which occurs in about 5 percent of patients with sickle cell disease, usually in children. When this happens, the spleen becomes enlarged, and the patient becomes severely anemic. Doctors usually treat it with blood transfusions, but if that doesn’t help, the spleen may need to be surgically removed.

Working with healthy red blood cells and sickled red cells from sickle cell disease patients, the researchers allowed the cells to flow through their device under controlled oxygen levels.

Under normal oxygen conditions (20 percent oxygen) sickled cells created some blockage at the slits, but there was still space for other blood cells to pass through. However, when the oxygen level decreased to 2 percent, the slits quickly became fully blocked.

When the researchers increased the oxygen level again, the blockage cleared up. This may partly explain why blood transfusions, which bring oxygenated blood cells into the spleen, can help patients who are experiencing acute splenic sequestration, Dao says.

“Our findings provide a general scientific framework to guide and rationalize what doctors observe. They also help to elucidate how the spleen provides a critical function to help filter blood cells,” Suresh says.

The researchers found that mildly deoxygenated conditions (5 percent oxygen) cause some clogging but not enough to produce a splenic sequestration crisis, which may explain why such crises occur rarely, Dao says.

Slow digestion

The researchers then used the other device module, the M chip, to model what happens as red blood cells encounter macrophages under different conditions. They found that when oxygen levels were low, sickled red blood cells were much more likely to be trapped by macrophages and ingested by them. In fact, so many blood cells were caught that macrophages became overwhelmed and couldn’t destroy them fast enough, contributing to the clogging of the slits.

The researchers also found that stiff sickled cells retained their sickled shape even after being ingested, which made it harder for macrophages to break them down. “About half of these cells stay sickled for a very long time and slow down the whole digestion process,” Dao says.

When oxygen levels were increased, the blood cells regained their normal shape, even the cells that had been ingested. This allowed macrophages to more easily digest them and clear up the clogged filters.

The researchers are now using the spleen-on-a-chip to study how drugs used to treat sickle cell disease, such as voxelotor and hydroxyurea, affect the cell behavior that they observed in this study. They also hope that the device could one day be used to help doctors analyze individual patients’ blood cells and monitor how their disease is progressing.

“This approach should help design assays to give patient-specific diagnosis and prognosis,” says Buffet, who is also a practicing clinician. “That may give doctors some idea of how well the patient is doing and in what situation they need to do a splenectomy or take other measures.”

The team also included MIT postdocs Ting Dong and Fuyin Zheng, Abdoulaye Sissoko from University of Paris, Zixiang Liu from Brown University, Fang Kong from Nanyang Technological University, and John Higgins from Massachusetts General Hospital. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and Nanyang Technological University.

We would love to say thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible web content

‘Spleen-on-a-chip’ yields insight into sickle cell disease

We have our social media pages here and other pages on related topics here.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(657) "Journal Reference: Yuhao Qiang, Abdoulaye Sissoko, Zixiang L. Liu, Ting Dong, Fuyin Zheng, Fang Kong, John M. Higgins, George E. Karniadakis, Pierre A. Buffet, Subra Suresh, Ming Dao. Microfluidic study of retention and elimination of abnormal red blood cells by human spleen with implications for sickle cell disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(7330) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Yuhao Qiang, Abdoulaye Sissoko, Zixiang L. Liu, Ting Dong, Fuyin Zheng, Fang Kong, John M. Higgins, George E. Karniadakis, Pierre A. Buffet, Subra Suresh, Ming Dao. Microfluidic study of retention and elimination of abnormal red blood cells by human spleen with implications for sickle cell disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2023; 120 (6) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2217607120

Researchers at MIT, Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and other institutions have now designed a microfluidic device, or “spleen-on-a-chip,” that can model how this phenomenon, known as acute splenic sequestration, arises.

The researchers found that low oxygen levels make it more likely that the spleen’s filters will become clogged. They also showed that boosting oxygen levels can unclog the filters, which may help to explain how blood transfusions help patients suffering from this condition.

“If we increase the oxygen levels, it will reverse the blockage,” says Ming Dao, a principal research scientist in MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering and one of the senior authors of the study. “This mimics what’s done when there’s a splenic sequestration crisis. The first thing doctors do is transfusion, and in most cases, that gives some relief to the patient.”

Subra Suresh, former dean of engineering at MIT, the Vannevar Bush Professor Emeritus of Engineering, and former president of Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University; Pierre Buffet, medical director of the Pasteur Institute and a professor at the University of Paris; and George Karniadakis, the Robinson and Barstow Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Brown University, are also senior authors of the study. MIT postdoc Yuhao Qiang is the lead author of the paper, which appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week.

Clogged filters

Most red blood cells have a lifespan of about 120 days, so nearly 1 percent of the supply has to be removed every day. Within the spleen, blood flows through tissue known as red pulp, which contains narrow passages called interendothelial slits.

These slits, formed by the spaces between the endothelial cells lining the spleen’s blood vessels, have maximum opening dimensions significantly smaller than those of a red blood cell. Any red blood cells that can’t pass through these tiny openings, because they’re damaged, stiffened or misshapen, become trapped and are destroyed by immune cells called macrophages.

To model the spleen’s filtration function, the researchers created a microfluidic device with two modules — the S chip, which mimics the interendothelial slits, and the M chip, which mimics the macrophages. The device also includes a gas channel that can be used to control the oxygen concentration of each chip to simulate conditions in the body.

Using this device, the researchers sought to better understand acute splenic sequestration, which occurs in about 5 percent of patients with sickle cell disease, usually in children. When this happens, the spleen becomes enlarged, and the patient becomes severely anemic. Doctors usually treat it with blood transfusions, but if that doesn’t help, the spleen may need to be surgically removed.

Working with healthy red blood cells and sickled red cells from sickle cell disease patients, the researchers allowed the cells to flow through their device under controlled oxygen levels.

Under normal oxygen conditions (20 percent oxygen) sickled cells created some blockage at the slits, but there was still space for other blood cells to pass through. However, when the oxygen level decreased to 2 percent, the slits quickly became fully blocked.

When the researchers increased the oxygen level again, the blockage cleared up. This may partly explain why blood transfusions, which bring oxygenated blood cells into the spleen, can help patients who are experiencing acute splenic sequestration, Dao says.

“Our findings provide a general scientific framework to guide and rationalize what doctors observe. They also help to elucidate how the spleen provides a critical function to help filter blood cells,” Suresh says.

The researchers found that mildly deoxygenated conditions (5 percent oxygen) cause some clogging but not enough to produce a splenic sequestration crisis, which may explain why such crises occur rarely, Dao says.

Slow digestion

The researchers then used the other device module, the M chip, to model what happens as red blood cells encounter macrophages under different conditions. They found that when oxygen levels were low, sickled red blood cells were much more likely to be trapped by macrophages and ingested by them. In fact, so many blood cells were caught that macrophages became overwhelmed and couldn’t destroy them fast enough, contributing to the clogging of the slits.

The researchers also found that stiff sickled cells retained their sickled shape even after being ingested, which made it harder for macrophages to break them down. “About half of these cells stay sickled for a very long time and slow down the whole digestion process,” Dao says.

When oxygen levels were increased, the blood cells regained their normal shape, even the cells that had been ingested. This allowed macrophages to more easily digest them and clear up the clogged filters.

The researchers are now using the spleen-on-a-chip to study how drugs used to treat sickle cell disease, such as voxelotor and hydroxyurea, affect the cell behavior that they observed in this study. They also hope that the device could one day be used to help doctors analyze individual patients’ blood cells and monitor how their disease is progressing.

“This approach should help design assays to give patient-specific diagnosis and prognosis,” says Buffet, who is also a practicing clinician. “That may give doctors some idea of how well the patient is doing and in what situation they need to do a splenectomy or take other measures.”

The team also included MIT postdocs Ting Dong and Fuyin Zheng, Abdoulaye Sissoko from University of Paris, Zixiang Liu from Brown University, Fang Kong from Nanyang Technological University, and John Higgins from Massachusetts General Hospital. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and Nanyang Technological University.

We would love to say thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible web content

‘Spleen-on-a-chip’ yields insight into sickle cell disease

We have our social media pages here and other pages on related topics here.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675618864) } [8]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(72) "The quail could be the unknown reservoir of Tuscany and Sicilian viruses" ["link"]=> string(104) "http://newsweather.org/science/the-quail-could-be-the-unknown-reservoir-of-tuscany-and-sicilian-viruses/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 05 Feb 2023 15:24:17 +0000" ["category"]=> string(50) "sciencequailreservoirSicilianTuscanyunknownviruses" ["guid"]=> string(31) "http://newsweather.org/?p=47665" ["description"]=> string(755) "Journal Reference: Nazli Ayhan, José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro, Marc López-Roig, Dolors Vinyoles, Josep Anton Ferreres, Abir Monastiri, Remi Charrel, Jordi Serra-Cobo. High rates of antibodies against Toscana and Sicilian phleboviruses in common quail Coturnix coturnix birds. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2023; 13 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1091908 This is the first time that researchers find neutralising antibodies to TOSV and ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4306) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Nazli Ayhan, José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro, Marc López-Roig, Dolors Vinyoles, Josep Anton Ferreres, Abir Monastiri, Remi Charrel, Jordi Serra-Cobo. High rates of antibodies against Toscana and Sicilian phleboviruses in common quail Coturnix coturnix birds. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2023; 13 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1091908

This is the first time that researchers find neutralising antibodies to TOSV and SFSV in wild birds. “To date, the reservoir for these two viruses was unknown, although they have been sought for years. Dogs and bats had been proposed as reservoirs, but the results showed that neither of them were,” says Jordi Serra-Cobo, an expert in epidemiological studies with bats as natural reservoirs of infectious agents such as coronaviruses.

The study, whose first author is Nazli Ayhan, from Aix-Marseille University, includes the participation of José Domingo Rodríguez Teijeiro, Marc López-Roig, Dolors Vinyoles and Abir Monastiri (UB Faculty of Biology and IRBio) and Josep Anton Ferreres (UB Faculty of Biology).

Emerging viruses in the Mediterranean basin

TOSV and SFSV belong to the Phlebovirus genus and are considered emerging pathogens. They are spherical, single-stranded RNA viruses with a high mutation rate and are transmitted by mosquito bites (Phlebotomus genus), insects found mainly in the warmer, drier areas of the Iberian Peninsula. These viruses are distributed in most Mediterranean countries in Western Europe, as well as Cyprus and Turkey. With no actual vaccine against infection, epidemiological surveillance, control, and prevention measures to avoid phlebotomine sandfly bites are crucial to avoid viral infections.

“Both TOSV and SFSV have been detected in a variety of domestic animals (dogs, cats, goats, horses, pigs, cows), but they can also infect humans and cause diseases,” says the researcher, a member of the UB Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences.

In humans, feblovirus infections are usually symptomless and often result in a three-day fever — pappatasis feve — which is very similar to influenza. “SFSV can cause a period of short-length high fever, accompanied by headache, rash, photophobia, eye pain, myalgia and general weakness. TOSV can cause the same manifestations as SFSV, but it can also be responsible for various central or peripheral neurological signs, such as meningitis and encephalitis. In fact, part of the encephalitis that occurs in summer is caused by TOSV,” Serra-Cobo notes.

Viruses in migratory birds

The results of the new study suggest that birds could be the reservoir or amplifying agents of these viruses. From infected birds, mosquitoes can become infected and then bite animals or humans. In particular, the study highlights the important role of quails (Coturnix coturnix) in the infection dynamics of phleboviruses.

“Migratory birds play an important role in disease transmission due to their high mobility from one area to another, which makes them potential vectors of diseases that can affect domestic animals and human health,” Serra-Cobo stresses.

“The quail is a migratory and also a hunter species, which enhances the potential transmission of diseases by direct contact through the food chain. In this context, regular pathogen detection is of great importance to predict future disease risks for both wildlife and humans,” concludes the researcher.

We wish to thank the author of this post for this outstanding web content

The quail could be the unknown reservoir of Tuscany and Sicilian viruses

You can find our social media profiles here and other related pages herehttp://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(755) "Journal Reference: Nazli Ayhan, José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro, Marc López-Roig, Dolors Vinyoles, Josep Anton Ferreres, Abir Monastiri, Remi Charrel, Jordi Serra-Cobo. High rates of antibodies against Toscana and Sicilian phleboviruses in common quail Coturnix coturnix birds. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2023; 13 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1091908 This is the first time that researchers find neutralising antibodies to TOSV and ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4306) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Nazli Ayhan, José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro, Marc López-Roig, Dolors Vinyoles, Josep Anton Ferreres, Abir Monastiri, Remi Charrel, Jordi Serra-Cobo. High rates of antibodies against Toscana and Sicilian phleboviruses in common quail Coturnix coturnix birds. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2023; 13 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1091908

This is the first time that researchers find neutralising antibodies to TOSV and SFSV in wild birds. “To date, the reservoir for these two viruses was unknown, although they have been sought for years. Dogs and bats had been proposed as reservoirs, but the results showed that neither of them were,” says Jordi Serra-Cobo, an expert in epidemiological studies with bats as natural reservoirs of infectious agents such as coronaviruses.

The study, whose first author is Nazli Ayhan, from Aix-Marseille University, includes the participation of José Domingo Rodríguez Teijeiro, Marc López-Roig, Dolors Vinyoles and Abir Monastiri (UB Faculty of Biology and IRBio) and Josep Anton Ferreres (UB Faculty of Biology).

Emerging viruses in the Mediterranean basin

TOSV and SFSV belong to the Phlebovirus genus and are considered emerging pathogens. They are spherical, single-stranded RNA viruses with a high mutation rate and are transmitted by mosquito bites (Phlebotomus genus), insects found mainly in the warmer, drier areas of the Iberian Peninsula. These viruses are distributed in most Mediterranean countries in Western Europe, as well as Cyprus and Turkey. With no actual vaccine against infection, epidemiological surveillance, control, and prevention measures to avoid phlebotomine sandfly bites are crucial to avoid viral infections.

“Both TOSV and SFSV have been detected in a variety of domestic animals (dogs, cats, goats, horses, pigs, cows), but they can also infect humans and cause diseases,” says the researcher, a member of the UB Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences.

In humans, feblovirus infections are usually symptomless and often result in a three-day fever — pappatasis feve — which is very similar to influenza. “SFSV can cause a period of short-length high fever, accompanied by headache, rash, photophobia, eye pain, myalgia and general weakness. TOSV can cause the same manifestations as SFSV, but it can also be responsible for various central or peripheral neurological signs, such as meningitis and encephalitis. In fact, part of the encephalitis that occurs in summer is caused by TOSV,” Serra-Cobo notes.

Viruses in migratory birds

The results of the new study suggest that birds could be the reservoir or amplifying agents of these viruses. From infected birds, mosquitoes can become infected and then bite animals or humans. In particular, the study highlights the important role of quails (Coturnix coturnix) in the infection dynamics of phleboviruses.

“Migratory birds play an important role in disease transmission due to their high mobility from one area to another, which makes them potential vectors of diseases that can affect domestic animals and human health,” Serra-Cobo stresses.

“The quail is a migratory and also a hunter species, which enhances the potential transmission of diseases by direct contact through the food chain. In this context, regular pathogen detection is of great importance to predict future disease risks for both wildlife and humans,” concludes the researcher.

We wish to thank the author of this post for this outstanding web content

The quail could be the unknown reservoir of Tuscany and Sicilian viruses

You can find our social media profiles here and other related pages herehttp://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1675610657) } [9]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(68) "New research turns what we know about bird window strikes inside-out" ["link"]=> string(100) "http://newsweather.org/science/new-research-turns-what-we-know-about-bird-window-strikes-inside-out/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Laura Surber" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 05 Feb 2023 13:07:40 +0000" ["category"]=> string(46) "scienceBirdinsideoutresearchstrikesturnswindow" ["guid"]=> string(32) "https://newsweather.org/?p=47663" ["description"]=> string(681) "Journal Reference: John P. Swaddle, Blythe Brewster, Maddie Schuyler, Anjie Su. Window films increase avoidance of collisions by birds but only when applied to external compared with internal surfaces of windows. PeerJ, 2023; 11: e14676 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14676 Bird window strikes occur when a bird flying near a building cannot perceive a glass windowpane and flies ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4121) "

Journal Reference:

  1. John P. Swaddle, Blythe Brewster, Maddie Schuyler, Anjie Su. Window films increase avoidance of collisions by birds but only when applied to external compared with internal surfaces of windows. PeerJ, 2023; 11: e14676 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14676

Bird window strikes occur when a bird flying near a building cannot perceive a glass windowpane and flies into it. These strikes are a significant concern for bird enthusiasts and conservationists, many of whom advocate for applying visibly noticeable films, patterns, and decals on surfaces of windows to alert birds of the glass.

Many people sympathetic to the potential of bird strikes around their homes or offices tend to apply decals to the inside of their windowpanes, primarily because external application is often logistically difficult and economically prohibitive, especially if the windows are above the first floor of a building. However, the results of this new study show that only external application of these decals can be associated with greater reductions in both window collisions and avian mortality.

Dr. John P. Swaddle, of William & Mary’s Institute for Integrative Conservation worked with students Blythe Brewster, Maddie Schuyler, and Anjie Su, to perform the first experimental study to compare the effectiveness of two distinct window films when applied to either the internal or external surface of double-glazed windows. The research team tested two different window film products: BirdShades and Haverkamp. These products were selected for the test because they engage with different wavelenths of light and colors visible to many songbirds.

Funding for the test of the BirdShades window film was provided by BirdShades Innovation GmbH. Using these films, the research team tested the avoidance of window collisions by zebra finches through controlled aviary flight trials. The team employed a design that allowed isolation of the effect of the window treatments on avoidance flight behaviors. A fine mist net in front of the windows prevented actual bird collision during the tests.

The team found consistent evidence that when applied to the external surface of windows, the films resulted in reduced likelihood of collision. However, neither product was effective when the films were applied to the internal surface of windows. Therefore, the results of this research demonstrate the imperative that installers apply these products to exterior surfaces of windows to maximize their protective benefits and reduce the risk of daytime window collision.

“Many people want to reduce bird-window collisions, as these unfortunate events kill hundreds of millions of birds each year,” says Dr. Swaddle. “There are lots of decals and window films that will likely make glass surfaces more visible to birds, decreasing collision risk. We were able to show that people must apply decals and films to the external surface of their windows to benefit the birds. We want people to know this as we want their time and money to be well spent — protecting the birds we all love.” Swaddle added “This research was conducted with a team of William & Mary undergraduate researchers, demonstrating the caliber of William & Mary students and the promise of the next generation of conservation researchers.”

We wish to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this outstanding content

New research turns what we know about bird window strikes inside-out

You can view our social media profiles here and other pages on related topics here.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

" } ["summary"]=> string(681) "Journal Reference: John P. Swaddle, Blythe Brewster, Maddie Schuyler, Anjie Su. Window films increase avoidance of collisions by birds but only when applied to external compared with internal surfaces of windows. PeerJ, 2023; 11: e14676 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14676 Bird window strikes occur when a bird flying near a building cannot perceive a glass windowpane and flies ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4121) "

Journal Reference:

  1. John P. Swaddle, Blythe Brewster, Maddie Schuyler, Anjie Su. Window films increase avoidance of collisions by birds but only when applied to external compared with internal surfaces of windows. PeerJ, 2023; 11: e14676 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14676

Bird window strikes occur when a bird flying near a building cannot perceive a glass windowpane and flies into it. These strikes are a significant concern for bird enthusiasts and conservationists, many of whom advocate for applying visibly noticeable films, patterns, and decals on surfaces of windows to alert birds of the glass.

Many people sympathetic to the potential of bird strikes around their homes or offices tend to apply decals to the inside of their windowpanes, primarily because external application is often logistically difficult and economically prohibitive, especially if the windows are above the first floor of a building. However, the results of this new study show that only external application of these decals can be associated with greater reductions in both window collisions and avian mortality.

Dr. John P. Swaddle, of William & Mary’s Institute for Integrative Conservation worked with students Blythe Brewster, Maddie Schuyler, and Anjie Su, to perform the first experimental study to compare the effectiveness of two distinct window films when applied to either the internal or external surface of double-glazed windows. The research team tested two different window film products: BirdShades and Haverkamp. These products were selected for the test because they engage with different wavelenths of light and colors visible to many songbirds.

Funding for the test of the BirdShades window film was provided by BirdShades Innovation GmbH. Using these films, the research team tested the avoidance of window collisions by zebra finches through controlled aviary flight trials. The team employed a design that allowed isolation of the effect of the window treatments on avoidance flight behaviors. A fine mist net in front of the windows prevented actual bird collision during the tests.

The team found consistent evidence that when applied to the external surface of windows, the films resulted in reduced likelihood of collision. However, neither product was effective when the films were applied to the internal surface of windows. Therefore, the results of this research demonstrate the imperative that installers apply these products to exterior surfaces of windows to maximize their protective benefits and reduce the risk of daytime window collision.

“Many people want to reduce bird-window collisions, as these unfortunate events kill hundreds of millions of birds each year,” says Dr. Swaddle. “There are lots of decals and window films that will likely make glass surfaces more visible to birds, decreasing collision risk. We were able to show that people must apply decals and films to the external surface of their windows to benefit the birds. We want people to know this as we want their time and money to be well spent — protecting the birds we all love.” Swaddle added “This research was conducted with a team of William & Mary undergraduate researchers, demonstrating the caliber of William & Mary students and the promise of the next generation of conservation researchers.”

We wish to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this outstanding content

New research turns what we know about bird window strikes inside-out

You can view our social media profiles here and other pages on related topics here.http://newsweather-org.ntcloudhosting.com/related-pages/

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